nursing philosophy

Wordle: Health Philosophy
Plain Talk:  Nursing philosophy is the reasoning behind why we do nursing the way we do.  Go deeper:  Why we do nursing the way we do is dependent upon whatever we think ‘health’ is.  Whatever we think ‘health’ is reflects our beliefs about the purpose and experience of human life.

The Tortures of Nursing Theory Class

I dreaded the required graduate nursing theory class in 1997.  Who created this mental torture chamber and charged me good money for it?  Self-preservation requires you avoid these things.  Besides,  I would never use nursing theory or philosophy, or so I thought, because, come on, that is of absolutely no use in my work as an ER/trauma nurse.  Need I say my attitude was terrible?


Life has a way of mocking us when we reach, years later, an “aha” moment –  that moment of insight in which the past comes to bear on the present in surprise and wonder.  It was a moment when I realized that perhaps part of the reason nursing theory was so disdained by everyday nurses is that the ‘way’ we do nursing reflects our beliefs about health and human experience, and theory did not seem to capture the depth of reality we experience in practice.  Nursing practice is characterized by encounters with hearts and souls abiding in bodies, and the essence of nursing practice is grounded in how we relate to and support others through the healing process that engages skills and clinical knowledge.

Getting Down to the Real Problem

Nursing philosophy explains what nursing is and why nurses practice nursing the way they do. Nursing theory explains how nurses and patients create health and healing, by using models to describe how concepts and factors of health are related. It’s no wonder that nurses and nursing students thumb their nose at philosophy and theory, because if we don’t know, or haven’t articulated, the fundamental tenets of health in a way that is consistent with the human experience, then the disconnect from philosophy to practice will remain.

To blame nursing philosophy and theory is to make nursing the scapegoat for the bigger, more obscure problem:  the absence of a well-developed philosophy of health.  

Naivete and accepting the status quo in nursing philosophy is killing us.  We must develop philosophies of health that underpin nursing philosophy, theory, and practice.  Part of the key lies in drawing on what we intuitively know about wellness and illness, and what we know through actual experience about how patients heal.  The psychology scholars have done some marvelous work on well-being and happiness.  Tying those findings into health is OUR job, and creating those ties require a workable philosophy of health.

This is the path that led me to create the Perspectival Well-Being Model in which well-being is mediated by our sense of belonging in social relationships to others, by our sense of virtue, and the need to care for ourselves.  I posit that personal well-being is not grounded in self-centric thoughts and activities, but in being and acting in our worlds through virtue and relationship.  By focusing on the unbreakable tie between virtue, self, and others, there is plenty of room for the current understanding of health as a function of well-being and vice versa.  It is broad enough to account for a spectrum of health experiences:  from the well-being of the terminally ill or severely injured, to the ill-being of the socially isolated but physically healthy person.

Graffiti art in Dusseldorf, Germany

Plain Talk: Art and music can open your brain to new ways of thinking about life…and that’s what philosophy is…how we think about life.  The Kimmie Factor decreases when we explore art and music.  Read on…

The abstractions of philosophy throw students for a loop.  The subject seems so “out there”, “irrelevant to daily life”, and comments like “it won’t help me do my job as a nurse in the ER” abound.  Philosophy, for many nursing students, reminds me of my very needy, maladjusted, quirky grade school classmate, Kimmie (not her real name), who followed me everywhere.  I felt sorry for her, but I was so ill at ease with her following me.  I wanted her to go away and quit bothering me with her weirdness.  I just didn’t know how to handle her.  Instead of trying to find out who she really was, I kept her at arm’s length, just far enough I could politely ditch her, or I could welcome her into a conversation.  Just as long as I could control the interaction.

Tackling philosophy reminds me of the difficulty in befriending the awkward people in our lives.  It is not an easy task.  You lose your sense of control.  It takes your mind to an uncomfortable place, to a new way of thinking, where there is no GPS to ease the discomfort of this strange, unknown location.  Likewise, abstraction  can be intimidating when we have nowhere to anchor ourselves.  It’s easier to remain indoors and not answer the door, than it is to invite Kimmie into our lives.  We greatly dislike that loss of control for dealing with weirdness.  It’s what I call the “Kimmie Factor”.

Have you ever noticed how the arts & music crowd seem more philosophical in their conversations?  I don’t think it’s coincidental.  Art, music, and philosophy have much in common.  Some of you would respond, “Duh, those people are all weird, and impractical.”  I get that.  I once thought that, too.

The Kimmie Factor may well be limiting you from seeing the beauty of philosophy.  Is the Kimmie Factor preventing you from self-evaluation of your own life philosophies?  The Kimmie Factor puts us in an uncomfortable position where we can try our darndest at avoidance like I did, or the Kimmie Factor can be just the challenge you need to at least consider your own views.  On one level, you know that the Kimmie Factor demands attention.  I knew that befriending Kimmie was the right thing, but my own discomfort scared me off from a deeper relationship with her, something I regret now.  I wasn’t mean to her, but my neglect and minimal engagement when I knew better, was probably more of my loss than hers.

Philosophy has a strong Kimmie Factor.  It’s weird, and those old philosophers are so “out there”.  Who cares, after all?  Consider the job of philosophers.  They can’t quit asking questions about why we’re here, why we do what we do, why we think what we think, and what is the meaning of life.  Finding words for that is hard.  You are not so different because you and your friends talk about what life is like and why and why people do the things you do.  Those old philosophers were likely interesting guys, and every now and then, they were probably ordering pizza and hanging out with friends.  Shoot, they might have even had a real life, and owned a great dog!

You can decrease the Kimmie Factor by visiting art museums, attending art shows, and talking to artists.  When you expose your mind to many and varied types of art, you begin to think a little more “out of the box” abstractly.  Your mind will begin to acquaint your thoughts with an array of possibilities as to how these thoughts and beliefs might be organized.  It stretches you, you grow, you see life more full of possibilities, not only for yourself, but for the human race.

Exposure to good music also decreases the Kimmie Factor.  However you define what constitutes “good music”, the takeaway here is that the complexity of music and how it engages both sides of our brains, is a splendid way to increase your capabilities to thinking philosophically.  Music invades all parts of your brain.  Even the math side (yes, there’s hope for the mathaphobes).  It is not uncommon for brain-injured and stroke victims to retain the ability to sing all the verses of a song, yet not be able to communicate well verbally.  This happened to Gabby Giffords, the Congresswoman from Arizona who was shot in the head in January 2011.  She is regaining her speech through singing  Don’t limit yourself to a few types of music.  Listen with intention across genres. (Get the free Pandora for your computer so you can freely explore genres and artists without a financial outlay.)

Art, music, and philosophy have this commonality:  They are all ways of interpreting our world and feelings, a type of “sense-making” to provide us with a sense of coherence, meaning, and significance.  The Kimmie Factor imprisons you from seeing what you could be seeing, from feeling what you could be feeling, from thinking in different ways that would enhance your life.

Start today to decrease the Kimmie Factor.  Step outside your comfort zone.  Explore a topic of interest but go beyond what you usually seek out.  Look at the topic in philosophy, in art, in music, and other disciplines as well.  University and college fine arts departments are very good venues for the novice, due to the low cost and immense variety of music, dance, and art forms. Art exhibits change frequently, so you can go to the sculpture exhibit, modern art, the graphic design exhibit (one of my favs), etc.  Another venue I like are the little coffee shops, bars, and out-of-the-way places where the average Joe has his art displayed, and live music abounds to be enjoyed over coffee or drinks.  During free time at home, explore, or find new and upcoming artists.  View wholesome art/music videos on YouTube and Vimeo.

A good example of how art, music, and philosophy converge in video can be found in the Kony2012 documentary produced by Invisible Children, an advocacy group for the 30,000 children abducted, killed, and mutilated by Joseph Kony, leader of the LRA for 26 years running, has created a short documentary-gone-viral for the goal of ensuring the arrest of this man who is the #1 most wanted man in the world by the International Criminal Court.  The film is a superb creation of art, music, and a unique strategy for social action to bring Jospeh Kony to justice.  As you view it, think about how all these elements of art, music, and philosophy are composed to convey a set of life values (philosophy) and how those elements argue for a certain philosophy of life that values children, engages an idea of global responsibility in the sanctity of life, and of using technology for maintaining the rights of the voiceless.  The deeper value conveyed in this film is our responsibility to our fellow man.

The Kimmie Factor nearly prevented me from a life-enhancing evening.  Despite my love of music, my Kimmie Factor was loud and insistent that a percussion music performance would be the worst way to spend an evening.  Who would want to listen to drums and xylophones all evening?  <groan……..>  The Kimmie Factor wanted to reinforce my belief this was going to be like a high school trap drum solo.  But I had to go because my college-age daughter said it would be wonderful and you have to say ‘yes’ to these things.  Turns out it was a fabulous experience, especially the 17 large, native drums. The Kimmie Factor is easier to confront when you go with a friend.

Engage with people outside your familiar circle of friends.  Take someone with you.  Do this regularly and soon the Kimmie Factor will be a thing of the past.  (I promise you won’t develop an exponential weirdness factor in the process).

Assignment:  Write a 10 page paper on nursing philosophy.  Expound how it relates to the theorist of your choice, the nursing metaparadigm, and implications for nursing practice.

Could anything be more painful?  Or boring?  Or seemingly unimportant and irrelevant?  Really….is this going to be of value doing CPR on your patient who just coded from a drug overdose?  How do these nurse academicians think up this stuff, anyway?  That’s what I used to think, too.
Set those thoughts aside.  Negativity is of no help to you now.  Nursing philosophy and theory IS important.  That’s why your professor created the assignment.  Don’t let the unfamiliarity of it scare you off.  I’ll help you with it.
Reality:  The paper is 25% of your grade.PLAIN TALK:  Your philosophy, which is just a fancy name for your beliefs and values and WHY those are your beliefs and values, is what guides your selection of theory and how you envision what effective and good nursing looks like. So philosophy affects both the beginning and end of nursing actions. It explains why you do the things you do, and why you do them in the way that you do them.

Let me help you tackle it.  These assignments are so often way too broad and extensive, mainly because professors often don’t appreciate the enormity of what they’re really asking.  The one thing that helps the most is to imagine how you would explain to a friend why you went into nursing, what “health” is, and what nursing should “look like”.  In this case, you’re explaining it to your professor.  Here’s how to do it:
1.  Break down the assignment into its basic elements:
     A.  Personal philosophy of nursingSee my prior blog post on this topic.
     B.  Metaparadigm:  Nurse, patient, environment, health.  Although this is taken as written as stone, you may, like I, not fully agree.  But accept it for now.  Changing metaparadigms is a lot of work.
     C.  Definition of nursing.  The most widely accepted definition is the American Nurses’ Association definition.
     D.  Theorist of choice.  This often depends on the type of patient you’re caring for.  No one theory works for every setting.  So state up front what kind of patient you are thinking of and that will direct your choice of theory.  Write in your paper that no one theory works for everything.  Justify why  you have chosen that particular theory for that particular kind of patient and that particular kind of nursing.  For example, a post-op orthopedic patient fits well with Orem’s self-care theory.  Care of the chronically ill/diabetic Hispanic patient is a nice fit for Leininger’s transcultural theory.  The newly divorced patient or newly widowed patient fits with Meleis’ transitions theory.
2.  Another element you need to think about is your philosophy of health.    Nobody ever talks about this.  You need to think about what is health?  It’s not necessarily the nursing metaparadigm.  Read through this blog to get more ideas.  Come to your own conclusions.  You need to state your beliefs about health.
3.  Once you’ve decided on the elements above, you need to figure out how these elements relate together.  The most common error is to try to say everything about every element.  That ends up a bloated, overwritten, blob.  Pick one small area of each element and link it logically to all the other elements.  For example, maybe you center it all on a hypothetical patient.  Maybe you will focus on the generalities of a quality of nursing, like caring and show what that looks like at each level.

What you are doing is building a pyramid.  The bottom layer is your philosophy.  The next layer is the nursing metaparadigm, then the theory, then nursing practice, then the particular patient where one-on-one nursing occurs.  Your job is to connect the dots from one layer to another.

Remember:  Your philosophy, which is just a fancy name for your beliefs and values and WHY those are your beliefs and values, is what guides your selection of theory and how you envision what effective and good nursing looks like.  So philosophy affects both the beginning and end of nursing actions.  It explains why you do the things you do, and why you do them in the way that you do them.

Good luck.  You’ll do fine.  Let me know how I can help.

Plain Talk:  Google’s search engine confirms it:  Philosophies of health don’t really exist.  And they should.  They must if nursing is going to advance in its philosophical work.  That’s the only way healthcare will advance past the current models.

The Details:
Nursing philosophy is hard because most of the time what is being referred to is not nursing philosophy, but health philosophy.  The professor assigns the nursing students the ever-elusive, most hated assignment:  “Write a 5-10 page paper on your nursing philosophy, undergird it with theory, and demonstrate how it is implemented in the four domains of nursing (nurse, patient, environment, health), and justify your reasons for your position.”  This is literally an impossible assignment.  Volumes have been written on these subjects.  It cannot be addressed in a short paper.  The single revelation here is that even professors don’t understand it.  I don’t fault them, though, because our discipline has not adequately pursued the development of philosophy.

I’ve realized over the last few years, though, that the main difficulty lies in the fact that we have not adequately stated a philosophy of health.  With all the various interpretations and dimensions of health discussed in nursing, psychology, medicine, and sociology, we are still missing something.  I think that “something” is found in our presuppositions…our fundamental beliefs and assumptions that guide our view and interpretation of the world. 

The quandaries of the nursing philosophy assignment is a clue to the fact that we don’t have it quite right.  Look at how nursing views “health”:  physical, emotional, spiritual, environmental.  It’s a modular idea.  We took the medical paradigm of the body’s mechanical functioning, glued on emotional and spiritual dimensions, and set it against a backdrop of environment.  When all systems are “go”, we want to call it “health” or “energy” or “being”.  Even integrative medicine that emphasizes nutrition, stress reduction, and exercise are generally based on a modular approach.

If nursing is going to make sense of nursing philosophy, it needs to consider philosophies of health.   The current philosophy of health as stated in the paragraph above is inadequate.  Before we can be prescriptive (make recommendations for people’s health) we must be proscriptive (describe what health is & is not).  Since health has come to mean more than the physical, and more along the lines of human flourishing, then we have to figure out what constitutes human flourishing.

Enough for now.

(Photo source:  Research Haven)

Plain Talk:  Thinking of health as mind-body-spirit, while useful, in its own right, leaves out the importance of meaning and purpose that we know we are made for.  We have to include this when we think of health.

The Details:
No nurse (at least in the western world) sees nursing as “just” caring for the sick, the babies, and the old people.  Heaven forbid.  Hopefully, we’ve come much farther than that.  But we have much farther to go, in my opinion.

If I asked you to tell me how nursing is different than medicine, you’d probably offer that medicine is disease-focused, and nursing is holistic, and by that you would mean that nursing considers the “whole” person.  You would describe to me that people are not just bodies, but also made of a unity of body, mind, and spirit.  Nurse scholars have offered similar concepts.  McEwen &Wills (2007) put it this way:  “Person refers to a being composed of physical, intellectual, biochemical, and psychosocial needs; a human energy field; a holistic being in the world; an open system; an integrated whole; an adaptive system; and a being who is greater than the sum of his parts.” (p. 43).

We’ll come back to this.

Next, consider the objectives of the nursing profession:  care of the sick, care of the well, assisting self-care activities, helping people attain their human health potential.  McEwen &Wills (2007) continue:  “The purposes of nursing care include placing the client in the best condition for nature to restore health, promoting the adaptation of the individual, facilitating the development of an interaction between the nurse and the client in which jointly set goals are met, and promoting harmony between the individual and the environment.  Furthermore, nursing practice facilitates, supports, and assists individuals, families, communities, and societies to enhance, maintain, and recover health and to reduce and ameliorate the effects of illness.” (p. 43).

I hoped you picked up on the common bond between these well-accepted explanations of person and of the purpose of nursing.  The commonality is that of a systems framework.  When man is conceptualized as a system, then any nursing interventions will necessarily be systems-oriented, if nursing is to be at all congruent with their philosophical foundations.  But for reasons I’ll discuss below, I think this is a thoroughly short-sighted framework that has squelched the work of nursing, at least theoretically speaking. 

At the risk of sounding disrespectful, one can pretty easily substitute “dog” (especially a smart dog like mine) in the above definitions and have coherent statements.  I’m not saying nurse scholars through the ages think of humans as mere systems.  It’s obvious they don’t think that. I definitely appreciate the great difficulty that arises in finding adequate language to describe the nature of man.  That’s been the plague of philosophy for ages, after all.

But is there a more robust conceptualization of man and by extension, nursing, that will take us beyond this constrictive framework of “mind-body-spirit”?  I believe there is.  Indeed, nurse researchers have come close to it in their studies on hope. 

What I am proposing is a re-conceptualization of man within nursing philosophy that places the focus on vision, passion, and purpose of the individual.  This new paradigm more rightly aligns “health” with the true nature of man.  Health is not a repair schedule in which “systems” are fixed and fiddled.  Health, true health, is when people possess a passion for the purpose of enriching the lives of others and themselves by virtue of a higher vision for a meaningful life that reaches outside themselves to others in goodness.  This is the only explanation offered by say, a patient with terminal cancer, who is consumed not by cancer, but is consumed with life purpose.  This vision and passion I speak of is akin to hope but not the same as hope.  I think passion is much deeper than hope and I think it is more representative of how we would describe true health.  It is a passion fueled by virtue.

As nurses, if our calling is to direct patients towards true health, then our focus cannot solely be on a systems orientation.  The absence of physical (system) illness is not true health. The absence of mental (system) illness is not true health.  The absence of emotional (system) illness is not true health.  The absence of spiritual (system) distress is not true health.  A “working” systems paradigm cannot constitute true health, because we are not, fundamentally speaking, a set of systems. 

We must look far beyond the confines of systems paradigms.  Is it possible to instill a sense of vision, passion, and purpose in our patients?  Of course it is. The opportunities are immense.  This is a huge field ripe for some creative and scholarly research focused on optimizing the individual to live a life of importance, of service, of love.

Lack of purpose robs.  Lack of passion starves.  Lack of vision kills.  We were not made for ourselves only…such thinking is destructive to our souls and bodies.  Think how much “healthier” we would all be if we just had a megadose of vision, passion, and purpose to benefit others and truly impact our world.

The new metaparadigm for true health:
Perceive the vision.
Possess the passion.
Pursue the purpose.


Stay tuned.  More to come as we flesh this out little by little and see how it fits within the Perspectival Evidentialism model.  Let me know your thoughts.

McEwen, M. and Wills, E. M. (2007).  Theoretical Basis for Nursing. 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Plain Talk:  Maybe we don’t have a theory-practice gap.  Instead, we may have a gap between the way we think of human nature and the questions we come up with for nursing research.  How we understand human nature will necessarily impact what we choose as nursing research topics.  We have not spent enough time in nursing developing the concept of human nature as it relates to health.

The Details:
Green, Catherine. (2009). A comprehensive theory of the human person from philosophy and nursing. Nursing Philosophy 10(4), 263-274.

Ontology: the study of what exists, what is real.

I applaud this article. Catherine Green notes that our source of knowledge of others is our observance of a person’s intentional actions. Green acknowledges the stances of two philosophers, Wallace and Sokolowski.

Wallace states that personal responsibility for choices is ingrained in our relationships with others and society.

Sokolowski asserts that personal intentionality is made known publicly by one’s actions.

If we blend Wallace and Sokolowski into one statement, it would be this: We have knowledge of other people based on their choices and these choices reflect their intentions. At this point, you might be thinking, “duh”. Keep reading.

Green uses this synthesis to suggest this might help close the theory-practice gap. But I think it’s deeper than that. To me, Green’s article reveals that the problem is not a theory-practice gap so much as it is an ontologic-research gap.

The theory-practice gap is the ‘disconnect’ that some have noted as the mismatch between theory in the classroom and real-life nursing practice. Who thinks about Roy, Orem, Nightingale, Rogers, Henderson, etc. during daily work? Some of these theoretical systems are very complex. But maybe that’s not the REAL problem.

The real problem, I think, more often lies in the ontologic, which I’ve written about before. In nursing practice, we’re not dealing with a theory, we’re working with a person. So our assumptions about the nature of man must be accurate for us to effectively intervene on their behalf. We do this instinctively. The reason theory doesn’t resonate with us may be because the theory reflects dimensions of man, rather than ontology of man. Theory recognizes domains of man as social, physical, mental, and spiritual being. But deeper than that is man’s morality and intentionality, as Wallace and Sokolowski asserted.

Ideally, philosophy informs theory which informs research which informs practice.

Skipping philosophy to focus on theory and then jumping to practice creates some potential problems. Problems like treating theory as if it were the philosophy. A poorly articulated philosophy/ontology will result in a tenuous theory, which down the road finds a disconnect to practice.

Green has it right. The ontologic notions of relationship, revelation of personal intention, and moral responsibility that Green so aptly describes is premised on the belief that nursing theory needs a more ontologically sound foundation. Indeed, an ontologic focus on man’s essential being is necessary if we are to extract pertinent research questions about the essence of man’s well-being. By defining the nature of man more thoroughly, nursing theory is built on a more solid foundation. Following suit, the research is targeted to truly pertinent questions, and practice naturally follows in accordance.

Green’s pragmatic emphasis echoes the work of Doane and Varcoe (2005) who adopted a nursing philosophy of pragmatism, which is a process to “bring knowledge, compassion, and action together to produce practical knowing – to develop knowledge in service of worthwhile human purposes” (p. 115). I assert that such practical knowing is steeped in the ontologic primarily, and in the theoretical secondarily. Green’s work is a step in the right direction.

I’m not saying my opinion is revolutionary or the be-all, end-all. I think we need to get out of the rut of always assuming there is a problem we call the theory-practice gap. Maybe it’s not that at all in some cases. Maybe it’s an ontologic-research gap.

I propose that the next step forward involves exploring this ontologic synthesis of man as a relational and intentional being.

Listen to Sokolowski: “What human nature is capable of being in its actions is shown not primarily by philosophical speculation but by good human agents. Virtuous action in concrete situations is the primary display of the possibilities of action…Virtuous agents acting are the measure of what ought to be done. There is no cognitive substitute for this original display.” (Sokolowski, 1985, p. 149).


Doane, G. H. (2009). Toward compassionate action: Pragmatism and the inseparability of theory/practice. In P. G. Reed, Perspectives on Nursing Theory (5th ed., pp. 111-121). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

Green, C. (2009). A comprehensive theory of the human person from philosophy and nursing. Nursing Philosophy , 10 (4), 263-274.

Sokolowski, R. (1985). Moral Action: A Phenomenological Study. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press.
Portions of this post were selected from my letter to the editor of Nursing Philosophy, publish date pending.


Every discipline has its philosophical foundation, and nursing is no different. Philosophy attempts to answer the questions of what nursing is, why it exists, and what ethics and values underpin these beliefs. Inherent in any nursing philosophy is how man is conceptualized. If you are new to nursing philosophy, this is where I would recommend you begin in identifying your own philosophy of nursing.

Nursing philosophy, like any other discipline-specific philosophy, is what directs and drives research and knowledge development to advance the discipline. Philosophy, then, articulates the core beliefs of a discipline and defines the boundaries of what we want to know about our discipline.

Your personal nursing philosophy is not your treatise on why you want to be a nurse. It is not a statement about what nurses do in context of health and illness. If that is where you’re at right now, you need to drop down a level, because what nursing “looks like” must be undergirded by why it should look like that (whatever “that” is). You are trying to explain to someone else why nursing exists. Go deeper than the superficiality of “nursing helps people maintain health” or “nurses alleviate suffering”. Incessantly ask yourself “why”. Get past the superficial.

Philosophy is formed from intuitions and beliefs about the way life should be and why you think it should be that way. You should consider the following questions when you write your personal nursing philosophy:

1. What is the purpose of man’s life? Why do you believe what you believe?

2. Why do people value health? How does health relate to man’s purpose?

3. How does illness interfere with our purpose in life? Or does it?

4. How do you define health? How is that related to your idea of man’s purpose in life?

5. What do you believe about the community of man? What are our social obligations to our fellow man? Why?

6. Is “health” a right? Or is it an ideal? Is medical care a right? Or is it an ideal?

7. By now you should have an idea about what ethical values you think should be held by nurses. Again, this is related to your concept of humanity and our purpose in life.

8. If you get stuck anywhere along the way, keep asking yourself “Why do I believe this?” and you’ll eventually get there, though it can be mind-boggling at times. You’ll find that your answers always revolve around values and morals and purpose. That’s why it’s important to know what you believe and why. Keep asking these questions of yourself.

By working through these questions you will arrive at how nursing fits into your philosophy of man, because your philosophy will reflect what you believe about yourself, and it should also lead you to why you chose nursing as a profession.

Philosophy can be intimidating, but it is just a fancy term for your beliefs and your justification of those beliefs. Good luck! Email me with your questions. I’d also love to read your philosophy!

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